al biruni pronunciation in english
Moreover, Hindus in 11th century India had suffered waves of destructive attacks on many of its cities, and Islamic armies had taken numerous Hindu slaves to Persia, which — claimed Al-Biruni — contributed to Hindus becoming suspicious of all foreigners, not just Muslims. There are, however, other reasons which make it impossible.  Dr. Edward C. Sachau compares it to "a magic island of quiet, impartial research in the midst of a world of clashing swords, burning towns, and plundered temples. , Biruni's main essay on political history, Kitāb al-musāmara fī aḵbār Ḵᵛārazm (Book of nightly conversation concerning the affairs of Ḵᵛārazm) is now known only from quotations in Bayhaqī's Tārīkh-e Masʿūdī. However he was happy on occasion to express admiration for other cultures, and quoted directly from other religions' sacred texts when reaching his conclusions. Improved homework resources designed to support a variety of curriculum subjects and standards. How to pronounce urganch in English.  Al-Biruni was able to make much progress in his study over the frequent travels that he went on throughout the lands of India. English Tafsir al-Jalalayn is one of the most significant tafsirs for the study of the Qur’an. How do you pronounce urganch in English? In his letters to Avicenna, he stated the argument of Aristotle, that there is a change in the creator. Al-Biruni, A Great Muslim Scientist, Philosopher and Historian 171 that the noon of Sindh is the sunrise of Spain while their (Spaniards) noon is the sunset of Sind”.21 Al-Biruni’s most important and neglected work is Qanun al- Masudi, originally written in Arabic and later translated into Persian. sfn error: no target: CITEREFBerjak2005 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFPingree1989 (, sfn error: multiple targets (3×): CITEREFPingree2010 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFAtaman2008 (, S.H. In physics, al-Biruni made important contributions to mechanics, the study of the motion of objects under the action of forces. Use Youtube to practice the pronunciation of urganch in real conversation. Bīrūnī's catalogue of his own literary production up to his 65th lunar/63rd solar year (the end of 427/1036) lists 103 titles divided into 12 categories: astronomy, mathematical geography, mathematics, astrological aspects and transits, astronomical instruments, chronology, comets, an untitled category, astrology, anecdotes, religion, and books he no longer possesses. leading protagonist Al-Biruni, a scholar and mathematician, viewed natural law as the 'law of the jungle', and argued that the antagonism between human beings can only be overcome", Kaminski, Joseph J. He studied Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Hinduism, Christianity, Buddhism, Islam, and other religions. After translating an article, all tools except font up/font down will be disabled. Al-Biruni experimented with using balances to measure the weight and density of materials. , After Al-Biruni's death, in the Ghaznavid dynasty and following centuries his work was not built on, nor referenced. In his description of Sijzi's astrolabe he hints at contemporary debates over the movement of the earth. Al-Biruni measured the longest and the shortest distance of the moon and the earth. ", harvnb error: no target: CITEREFBearmanBianquisBosworth2007 (, Bukhara, the Eastern Dome of Islam: Urban Development, Urban Space By Anette Gangler, Heinz Gaube, Attilio Petruccio, Regimes of Comparatis edited by Renaud Gagné, Simon Goldhill, Geoffrey Lloyd. Al-Bīr Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography | 2008 | Copyright, "Abu Rayhan al-Biruni." He describes the educated as monotheistic, believing that God is one, eternal, and omnipotent and eschewing all forms of idol worship. However, Many have used Al-Biruni's work to check facts of history in other works that may have been ambiguous or had their validity questioned. Al-Biruni was born on September 4, 973, in Khwarezm, in what is now Uzbekistan.  Royalty and powerful members of society sought out Al-Biruni to conduct research and study to uncover certain findings.  One significant problem with this approach is that Al-Biruni was not aware of atmospheric refraction and made no allowance for it. He wrote an extensive commentary on Indian astronomy in the Taḥqīq mā li-l-Hind mostly translation of Aryabhatta's work, in which he claims to have resolved the matter of Earth's rotation in a work on astronomy that is no longer extant, his Miftah-ilm-alhai'a (Key to Astronomy): [T]he rotation of the earth does in no way impair the value of astronomy, as all appearances of an astronomic character can quite as well be explained according to this theory as to the other. SAID 1979 (1979): 414-9. sfn error: no target: CITEREFSaliba1989 (. Biruni notes in the beginning of his book how the Muslims had a hard time learning about Hindu knowledge and culture. "Al-Biruni (973–1048)." The most prominent of both modern and ancient astronomers have deeply studied the question of the moving of the earth, and tried to refute it. Along with his many other accomplishments, al-Biruni is remembered as one of the first scientists to apply experimental methods to the study of mechanics.  The book covers the Quadrivium in a detailed and skilled fashion. He was however, very critical of the Mu'tazila, particularly criticising al-Jahiz and Zurqan. Biruni left his hometown at a young age and he wandered around Persia and Uzbekistan. History and Chronology", "BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN vii. We hope you and your family enjoy the NEW Britannica Kids. 1 (2011): 107.  Accepting the definite demise of the Afrighids at the hands of the Ma'munids, he made peace with the latter who then ruled Khwarezm. He further argued that stating there is a change in the creator would mean there is a change in the effect (meaning the universe has change) and that the universe coming into being after not being is such a change (and so arguing there is no change - no beginning - means Aristotle believes the creator is negated). He used a dip angle of 34 arc minutes in his calculations, but refraction can typically alter the measured dip angle by about 1/6, making his calculation only accurate to within about 20% of the true value. Retrieved August 20, 2015.  Al-Biruni wrote an encyclopedic work on India called Taḥqīq mā li-l-Hind min maqūlah maqbūlah fī al-ʿaql aw mardhūlah (variously translated as "Verifying All That the Indians Recount, the Reasonable and the Unreasonable" or "The book confirming what pertains to India, whether rational or despicable") in which he explored nearly every aspect of Indian life, including religion, history, geography, geology, science, and mathematics. But, he did note how some of the accounts of information that he was given by natives of the land may not have been reliable in terms of complete accuracy, however, he did try to be as honest as possible in his writing. , Al-Biruni wrote about the peoples, customs and religions of the Indian subcontinent. , Al-Biruni was the person who first subdivided the hour sexagesimally into minutes, seconds, thirds and fourths in 1000 while discussing Jewish months. During these trips al-Biruni recorded observations about Indian life, language, and religion. Al-Biruni, sometimes referred to as Abu Rayhan al-Biruni, conducted a great deal of original mathematical and astronomical work, most notably when he collaborated with Abu al-Wafa (940-998) on determining the longitudinal difference between Baghdad and his city of Kath in what is now Uzbekistan. In June 2009, Iran donated a pavilion to the United Nations Office in Vienna—placed in the central Memorial Plaza of the Vienna International Center. 5 Feb. 2015, Hogendijk, Jan: The works of al-Bīrūnī – manuscripts, critical editions, translations and online links, ʿAjā'ib al-makhlūqāt wa gharā'ib al-mawjūdāt, Siraj ud-Din Muhammad ibn Abd ur-Rashid Sajawandi, The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing, Constantinople observatory of Taqi al-Din, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences, Geography and cartography in the medieval Islamic world, Alchemy and chemistry in the medieval Islamic world, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Al-Biruni&oldid=991924004, Scientists who worked on qibla determination, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles having different image on Wikidata and Wikipedia, Articles containing Persian-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2018, Wikipedia external links cleanup from April 2017, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with TDVİA identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, A Critical Study of What India Says, Whether Accepted by Reason or Refused (, Book of Instruction in the Elements of the Art of Astrology (, History of Mahmud of Ghazni and his father, This page was last edited on 2 December 2020, at 15:20. In addition to this various discussions of historical events and methodology are found in connection with the lists of kings in his al-Āthār al-bāqiya and in the Qānūn as well as elsewhere in the Āthār, in India, and scattered throughout his other works. ‘Al-Biruni wrote a note on Patanjali's Yoga sutra, Bhagavad-Gita and Sankhyakarika.’ ‘Vedas, shastras and sutras alike decry the killing and eating of animals’ ‘Clearly illustrated in Patanjali's yoga sutras, which states in the eight limbs that before meditation can begin one must possess concentration (Dharana).’ Using an Arabic mile equal to 1.225947 English miles, al-Biruni value of the radius was equal to 3928.77 English miles, which compares favourably, being different of 2%, with the mean radius of curvature of the reference ellipsoid at the latitude of measurement; this mean radius is of 3847.80 Although he tried to stay away from political and military history, Biruni did indeed record important dates and noted actual sites of where significant battles occurred. Kitab Tarikh Al-Hind and Aims of Writing it. According to Akbar S. Ahmed, like modern anthropologists, he engaged in extensive participant observation with a given group of people, learnt their language and studied their primary texts, presenting his findings with objectivity and neutrality using cross-cultural comparisons. Al-Khwarizmi flourished while working as a member of the House of Wisdom in Baghdad under the leadership of Kalif al-Mamun, the son of the Khalif Harun al-Rashid, who was made famous in the Arabian Nights. History of Religion", "Bīrūnī: Abū al‐Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad al‐Bīrūnī", "Al-Bīrūnī (or Bērūnī), Abū Rayḥān (or Abu'l-Rayḥān) Muḥammad Ibn Aḥmad", Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, Learn how and when to remove this template message. , Bīrūnī is one of the most important Muslim authorities on the history of religion. He documented different bodies of water and other natural phenomena. Indon. For a discussion of the general problem of the authenticity of the Sanskrit texts used by Al-Biruni , and the identification of some of the works cited by him , see Dr J .  He explains that Hinduism and Islam are totally different from each other. Al-Biruni’s life. Composed by the two “Jalals” -- Jalal al-Din al-Mahalli (d. 864 ah / 1459 ce) and his pupil Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti (d. 911 ah / 1505 ce), Tafsir al-Jalalayn is generally regarded as one of … He wrote some 150 books, about half of them on astronomy or mathematics. Al-Biruni used timings of the eclipse at Ghazna and a city in what is now Turkmenistan to estimate the longitude difference between the two cities as 10.2°. Biruni documented everything about India just as it happened. In addition to this various discussions of historical events and methodology are found in connection with the lists of kings in his al-Āthār al-bāqiya and in the Qānūn as well as elsewhere in the Āthār, in India, and scattered throughout his other works. Al-Biruni's “Chronology of Ancient Nations” attempted to accurate… Encyclopædia Iranica, (1989, December 15). How to say Nicolosi in English? In his major astronomical work, the Mas'ud Canon, Biruni observed that, contrary to Ptolemy, the sun's apogee (highest point in the heavens) was mobile, not fixed. Sep 30, Most of the works of Al-Biruni are in Arabic.  The Iranian Khwarezmian language, which was the language of Biruni, survived for several centuries after Islam until the Turkification of the region, and so must some at least of the culture and lore of ancient Khwarezm, for it is hard to see the commanding figure of Biruni, a repository of so much knowledge, appearing in a cultural vacuum. ", He further stated that Aristotle, whose arguments Avicenna uses, contradicted himself when he stated that the universe and matter has a start whilst holding on to the idea that matter is pre-eternal. | History Today", "The Hindu Calendar as Described in Al-Biruni's Masudic Canon", "Kitāb al-tafhīm li-awā'īl ṣinā'at al-tanjīm كتاب التفهيم لأوائل صناعة التنجيم Bīrūnī, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad بيروني، محمد بن أحمد", "Monument to Be Inaugurated at the Vienna International Centre, 'Scholars Pavilion' donated to International Organizations in Vienna by Iran", "Permanent mission of the Islamic Republic of Iran to the United Nations office – Vienna", "Negareh: Persian Scholars Pavilion at United Nations Vienna, Austria", http://www.brillonline.nl/subscriber/entry?entry=islam_SIM-4205, "BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN iii.
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