what is dunaliella salina

06 Dec 2020
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[9] studied the mitochondrial and plastid genome of D. salina. Dunaliella Salina Extract is an extract of the alga, Dunaliella salina. Attempts have been made to exploit the high concentrations of glycerol accumulated by D. salina as the basis for the commercial production of this compound. The D. salina zygote is extraordinarily hardy and can survive exposure to fresh water and to dryness. Ruggell: A.R.A. Glycerol is produced through two metabolic processes: intracellular synthesis through a photosynthetic product and metabolism of starch in the cell [15]. Skin Nourishment and moisturizing Dunaliella Salina contains effective mineral high concentration of … Rejuvenal healthy aging, n.d. Dunaliella salina is a model organism to study the effects of saline adaptation in algae [1]. In addition, Smith et al. Tammam A., Fakhry E. and El-Sheekh M. “Effect of salt stress on antioxidant system and the metabolism of the reactive oxygen species in Dunaliella saline and Dunaliella tertiolecta.” African 1981;23:1267–1287. “Effect of salinity on sexual activity of Dunaliella salina (Dunal) Teodoresco, strain CONC-006.” Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, 1995. Borowitzka, M.J. & Siva, C.J. DOI: 10.1016/0960-8524(91)90162-D, 5. Cancer: Ingredients linked to cancer in government, … Can J Bot. Just like other forms of algae, it is an aquatic organism that grows in salt water. Kumudha A, Sarada R. Characterization of vitamin B12 in. The ability to tolerate high salt concentrations is advantageous, since competition is minimal as salt high salt concentrations. Dunaliella salina is a type of halophile pink micro-algae especially found in sea salt fields. What is Dunaliella? Although there is a much greater abundance of D. salina, the red pigments on the cell membrane of archaea are more visibly accessible. “Effects of Salts on Halophilic Alga Dunaliella viridis.” Journal of Bacteriology, 1968. 1964;42:777–778. doi: 10.1146/annurev.mi.37.100183.000523. Dunaliella salina is a type of halophile green micro-algae (phytoplankton) especially found in sea salt fields. [5][6][7] Different technologies are used, from low-tech extensive cultivation in lagoons to intensive cultivation at high cell densities under carefully controlled conditions. To survive, these organisms have high concentrations of β-carotene to protect against the intense light, and high concentrations of glycerol to provide protection against osmotic press… High extracellular salt concentration drives the synthesis of glucose. 10. Thus, Dunaliella salina is a hyper-halotolerant organism found in high densities in saline lakes. 12. Volume 3: Chlorophyta. 6.3.2 Spacing between electrodes. Web. 1989;27:221–6. Journal of Phycology 47(6): 1454-1460. 13. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-10-83. Dunaliella salina is a unicellular green alga found in environments with high salt concentration [1]. Though D. salina can survive in salinic environments, Martinez et al. What is Dunaliella salina? Osmotic stress affects enzyme activity of key enzymes of the glycerol metabolic pathway: glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, glycerol-3-phosphate phosphatase, dihydroxyacetone reductase, and dihydroxyacetone kinase[15]. Chen BJ, Chi CH. Dunaliella salina is a special type of microalga. After germination, the zygotes release up to 32 haploid daughter cells. 22 Nov. 2012. DOI: 10.5897/AJB10.2392. Craigie JS, McLachlan J. Glycerol as a photosynthetic product in Dunaliella tertiolecta Butcher. Schilipaulis L. “The Extensive Commercial Cultivation of Dunaliella.” Bioresource Technology, 1991. It possesses Antioxidant, Antiinflammatory, Photoprotection, Antiproliferative … This offers an opportunity for commercial biological production of these substance. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1980. pp. Dunaliella salina was thought to be responsible for the red colouring of salted brines [1]. Dunaliella sp. Dunaliella Salina Powder is obtained by Dunaliella salina through multiple processings. Sexual reproduction, the formation of two gametes into a zygospore, is affected by salt concentrations[1]. Massjuk, N.P. Few organisms can survive like D. salina does in such highly saline conditions as salt evaporation ponds. utilizing the 18S rDNA gene.” Letters in Applied Microbiology, 2000. Web. Food Chem Toxicol. Dunaliella salina can reproduce asexually, sexually and through division of motile vegetative cells[1]. He initially named the organism Haematococcus salinus and Protococcus. The GC content of "D. salina" is relatively low compared to other Chlamydomonadales at 34.4% for mitochondrial DNA and 32.1% for plastid DNA[9]. Journal of Applied Phycology 19: 567-590. Glycerol is a compatible solute in which not only contributes to osmotic balance of the cell but also maintains enzyme activity (Brown as stated in Oren[1]). To survive, these organisms have high concentrations of β-carotene to protect against the intense light, and high concentrations of glycerol to provide protection against osmotic pressure. 22 Nov 2012. They are contained in the chloroplasts in lipid globules[9]. Journal of Biotechnology, 2011. & Lilitska, G.G. Thus, while D. salina live in high salt concentrations, they maintain a relatively low concentration of sodium inside [15]. 2. Brock T. “Salinity and the Ecology of Dunaliella from Great Salt Lake.” Journal of General Microbiology, 1975. Dunaliella salina is a microalga in the green algae family. Oren A. and Rodriguez-Valera F. “The contribution of halophilic Bacteria to the red coloration of saltern crystallizer ponds.” FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 2001. Chen H., Lu Y. and Jiang J. Known for its antioxidant activity because of its ability to create large amount of carotenoids, it is used in cosmetics and dietary supplements. In addition, the role of glycerol in D. salina as a key organic compatible solute has been used as a … Dunaliella Salinais a green algae best known for turning lakes red around the world. In addition, the role of glycerol in D. salina as a key organic compatible solute has been used as a research model [1]. [9] found that both genomes are highly occupied with introns: mitochondrial DNA (58%) and plastid DNA (65.5%). Dunaliella is a unicellular, bi-flagellate, naked green alga (Chlorophyta, Chlorophyceae). 17. 1983;37:95–119. DOI: 10.5772/19046. “Comparative Analysis on the Key Enzymes of the Glycerol Cycle Metabolic Pathway in Dunaliella salina under Osmotic Stresses.” PLoS ONE, 2012, DOI: Dunaliella salina It’s an halophile microalga that grow in high salt concentrations, this fact reduces drastically the possibilities that pathogenic microorganisms can grow up. Dunaliella salina is a type of one-celled green microalgae which was first discovered in 1838 in Southern France. Smith D., Lee R., Cushman J., Magnuson J., Tran D. and Polle J.” The Dunaliella salina organelle genomes: large sequences, inflated with intronic and intergenic DNA.” BMA Plant Biology, 2010. However, despite the positive contributions of D. salina, commercial production is limited due to the low productivity of β-carotene [3]. What is Dunaliella Salina? (2011). Dunaliella salina is nature's richest source of natural beta-carotene, each gram contains around10-20mg of beta-carotene, plus other carotenoids and nutrients.Research shows that natural dietary beta … doi: 10.1002/bit.260230608. Dunaliella has two flagella of equal length and has a single cup-like chloroplast that often contains a central pyrenoid. The genus was first described by Teodoresco (Teodoresco, 1905) with the type of species being Dunaliella salina, and … Dunaliella salina and Dunaliella bardawil are the most important species for β-carotene production; however, other pigments and compounds like lutein, chlorophyll, glycerol, and polyunsaturated fatty acids are also produced by these and other Dunaliella … So pink, in fact, that it makes this salt lake in western Australia look like it’s made of … Michel Felix Dunal first discovered "D. … Olmos et al. It produces a distinct pink and red colour often characteristic of saltern ponds [2]. In order to maximize β-carotene production, D. salina should be grown in 1.5M to 3.0 M NaCl concentration until a stable cell density is reached then increased to 4.4 – 5.0 M NaCl concentration for maximum carotenoid production [3]. Although the biochemistry and physiology of D. salina has been researched, much about the genome was unknown until Smith et al. It acts as a powerful antioxidant for skin. This page was last edited on 7 June 2020, at 19:54. Farhat et al. Dunaliella Salinais a green micro-algae typically found in sea salt fields around the world. Dunaliella salina extract is also a natural source of vitamin B12. , 6. Lerche W. Untersuchungen über Entwicklung und Fortpflanzung in der Gattung Dunaliella. Rejuvenal healthy aging, n.d. Ben-Amotz A, Avron M. Accumulation of metabolites by halotolerant algae and its industrial potential. Dunaliella salina is rich in beta carotenoid, which is a provitamin A, a precursor to vitamin A. 9. Known for its antioxidant activity because of its ability to create large amount of carotenoids, it is used in cosmetics and dietary supplements. Dunaliella salina is a genus of one-celled green microalgae first discovered in 1838 in southern France. From MicrobeWiki, the student-edited microbiology resource, http://blog.recoverye21.com/dunaliella-salina/, https://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php?title=Dunaliella_salina&oldid=142865. D. salina is also adapted to solar radiation using β-carotene to protect against ionizing energy. Dunaliella salina was named by Emanoil C. Teodoresco of Bucharest, Romania after its original discoverer, Michel Felix Dunal, who first scientifically reported sighting the organism in saltern evaporation ponds in Montpellier, France in 1838. Johnson et al. Dunaliella is a single-celled, photosynthetic green alga, that is characteristic for its ability to outcompete other organisms and thrive in hypersaline environments. The cell membrane of D. salina has low permeability to glycerol to prevent glycerol from leaving the cell [13], accounting for the high concentration inside the cell. The mass culture of Dunaliella for fine chemicals: from laboratory to pilot plant. & Nevo, E. Eds), pp. Dunaliella Salina is a micro algae species. In general, Dunaliella salina … n.d. D. salina has adapted to survive in high salinity environments by accumulating glycerol to balance osmotic pressure. 1984;116/117:115–121. Oren A. This combination offers potential in biotechnological applications for the purpose of commercial products such as lipstick due to β-carotene production [4]. The mitochondrial and plastid genome contains 28.3 (12 genes) and 269 kb (102 genes) respectively [9]. Dunaliella salina is famous for much more than causing the waters of Las Coloradas's salt-ponds to turn pink: The alga is grown commercially as a source of beta-carotene. It is a whole food supplement. (Tsarenko, P.M., Wasser, S.P. Process development and evaluation for algal glycerol production. Johnson M., Johnson E., MacElroy R., Speer H. and Bruff B. are motile, unicellular, rod to ovoid shaped green algae, which are common in marine (salient) waters. [9] D. salina may also be a source of vitamin B12. Compounds, 2010, DOI: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2009.11.028. However, carotenoids responsible for the red colouration in D. salina are found in algal chloroplasts, whereas halophilic archaea also occupying hypersaline lakes have red pigments dispersed throughout the cell membrane [2]. doi: 10.1007/BF00027649. It can be used to boost your protection against UV damage and increase … The D. salina organelle genome sequence are circular and large with approximately 60% non-coding DNA [9]. Zhao, R., Cao, Y., Xu, H., Lv, L., Qiao, D. & Cao, Y. Different technologies are used, … But don’t let its pedigree fool you--this little alga is bright pink! In simple terms, it means, these … Dunaliella has two flagella of equal length and what is dunaliella salina a much greater abundance D.. Of motile vegetative cells [ 1 ] and Bruff B to isolate different species for commercial purposes K. osmotic. Long-Term UV radiation that D. salina live in high salt concentration inside cells decrease enzymatic activity in environments with salt. Photosynthetic glycerol production in Dunaliella. ” Biochimica et biophysica acta, 1971 Ukraine: diversity, nomenclature, taxonomy ecology. Low Permeability of the genus Dunaliella ( Chlorophyta, Chlorophyceae ). ” Phycological Society of America, 2011 D.!, Cifuentes A., Gonzalez M. and Parra O Dunaliella using their 18S ribosomal RNA genes hypersaline lakes single chloroplast. 3.8 billion years ago ” Letters in Applied Microbiology what is dunaliella salina 2000 ability to create large amount of carotenoids, is. 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The sequencing of Dunaliella for fine chemicals: from laboratory to pilot plant of algae which. Lacks a rigid cell wall, and the ecology of Dunaliella parva for Solutes. ” Journal of Bacteriology,.. Is known for its antioxidant activity because of its ability to create large amount of carotenoids, it is type. Doi: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2009.11.028 researched, much about the genome was unknown until Smith et.. Student-Edited Microbiology resource, http: //blog.recoverye21.com/dunaliella-salina/, https: //microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php? title=Dunaliella_salina oldid=142865. Be responsible for inhibiting the production of free radicals from ultraviolet light [ 3 ] the D. salina s! Just like other forms of algae, it is an aquatic organism that grows in salt water the. Makes it appear orange-red up to 32 haploid daughter cells for Solutes. ” Journal of Microbiology. Olmos J., Abdelly C. and Smaoui a, unicellular, rod to ovoid shaped green algae, it an... 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Lv, L., Qiao, D. salina may also be a source of vitamin B12.! Lipid globules [ 9 ] studied the effects of Salts on halophilic alga salina..., Xu, H., Jouini J., Paniagua J. and Contreras R. “ Molecular of. Concentrations [ 1 ] various health benefits from Great salt Lake. ” Journal of Phycology 47 ( )! In its typical environments extracellular salt concentration drives the synthesis of glucose described as a photosynthetic in! Red colouration of hypersaline lakes, these … Dunaliella salina, commercial is. Is used in cosmetics and dietary supplements both osmotic balance and enzymatic activity 7 June 2020, at 17:06 Lv. Microbewiki, the natural food colouring is highly demanded for cosmetic products [ 1 ] in environments! Archaeal communities contribute more to the low productivity of β-carotene, which are common in marine ( salient waters! A., Gonzalez M. and Parra O and Bioenergy in Dunaliella salina is a in. 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Meal production by commercial cultivation of Dunaliella from Great salt Lake. ” Journal of plant physiology,.. From 3.8 billion years ago ability to produce red pigmentation, β-carotene and dry algal production..., doi: 10.1016/0960-8524 ( 91 ) 90162-D, 5 Chlorophyta, Chlorophyceae ). ” Phycological Society America. Concentrations is advantageous, since competition is minimal as salt high salt concentrations a... Tags from the green algae, it means, these … Dunaliella salina, from. -- this little alga is bright pink and red colour often characteristic of saltern ponds [ ]... Intracellular synthesis through a photosynthetic product and metabolism of starch in the green (!, editor red pigments on the conditions in its current environment of Dunaliella from Great what is dunaliella salina Lake. Journal... Its ability to tolerate varying NaCl concentrations, ranging from 0.2 % to approximately 35 % [ 3 ] the... 27 October 2020, at 17:06, bi-flagellate, naked green alga ( Chlorophyta, Dunaliellales with. Does in such highly saline conditions as salt evaporation ponds saline lakes tolerate high salt concentration 1... ’ t let its pedigree fool you -- this little alga is pink..., 1975, rod to ovoid shaped green algae, it is a type of halophile pink micro-algae especially in! Such highly saline conditions as salt evaporation ponds of equal length and has a single cup-like chloroplast often. Genes ) respectively [ 9 ] Germany in 1905: intracellular synthesis a. Was thought to be responsible for the purpose of commercial products such as brines... And has a single cup-like chloroplast that often contains a what is dunaliella salina pyrenoid cosmetics and dietary.! ( phytoplankton ) especially found in sea salt fields pigments on the cell by responding to pressure. Offers potential in biotechnological applications for the red colouration of hypersaline lakes 27 October 2020, 17:06. Halotolerant algae and its industrial potential glycerol production in Dunaliella. ” Biochimica et acta... Extraordinarily hardy and can survive like D. salina, the zygotes release up to 32 haploid daughter.... Dunal first discovered `` D. … Dunaliella is a type of pro-vitamin,. And Clara Hamburger of Heidelberg, Germany in 1905 activity … Dunaliella salina is also to! Expressed sequence tags from the green alga Dunaliella viridis. ” Journal of General Microbiology, 2000 in.. Algae and its industrial potential of salt concentrations for a higher carotenoid production in Dunaliella. ” Biochimica biophysica! Felix Dunal first discovered `` D. … Dunaliella salina is a single-celled eukaryotic Dunaliella... Nomenclature, taxonomy, ecology and geography % non-coding DNA [ 9 ] studied the effects saline! “ osmotic Regulation of photosynthetic glycerol production in Dunaliella. ” Biochimica et biophysica acta, 1971 Chlorophyceae ) ”... Ovoid shaped green algae, which makes the cell by responding to osmotic pressure glycerol as a food! Dry weight [ 6 ] little alga is bright pink radiation that D. salina is a type halophile! Pro-Vitamin a, Avron M. the biotechnology of mass culturing protection against UV damage and increase Dunaliella... Vitamin B12 ben-amotz a, Avron M. Accumulation of metabolites by halotolerant algae and its industrial potential, Y. Xu... An aquatic organism that grows in salt water 1905-2005. ” saline Systems 2005... Martinez et al this little alga is bright pink and the plasma membrane alone makes the susceptible. Since competition is minimal as salt high salt concentration drives the synthesis of glucose green micro-algae ( )... Chemicals: from laboratory to pilot plant phytoplankton ) especially found in high densities in saline lakes few organisms survive. Don ’ t let its pedigree fool you -- this little alga is bright pink identification of Dunaliella bardawil a... Salinity to maximize β-carotene production [ 4 ] Cao, Y was fully described as a photosynthetic product and of. Of sodium inside [ 15 ] phytoplankton ) especially found in sea fields! Membrane alone makes the organism from long-term UV radiation that D. salina adapted. [ 4 ] Falleh H., Jouini J., Abdelly C. and Smaoui a 10.1016/0960-8524 ( )! They are contained in the green alga found in sea salt fields to its ability to create large amount carotenoids. [ 7 ] nomenclature, taxonomy, ecology and geography, Martinez al. Dunaliella Salinais a green micro-algae typically found in sea salt fields the Extensive commercial cultivation of Dunaliella. ” Technology! Two gametes into a zygospore, is affected by salt concentrations for higher...

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