morphological characteristics of barley

06 Dec 2020
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Due to these facts, two-rowed barley landrace AM2 can be marked as the most productive in this research, bearing a potential for different crop breeding practices. This analysis was performed on four mutants representing four different root hair phenotypes: rhl1.a (root hairless), rhp1.c (root hair primordia), rhs2.a (short root hairs) and rhi1.a (root hair irregular). • grass The general picture that emerged from their functional analysis led to the conclusion that the lack of root hairs leads to much severe stress in mutant leaves and roots and causes damage to its cellular structures while in the parent variety with normal root hairs genes related to drought tolerance are actively induced. Then, the markers segregating after BSA were analysed using 30 F2 plants with the mutant phenotype and those that showed a close linkage to the gene of study were genotyped in the entire F2 population, as proposed by Castiglioni and co-workers (1998). 2007) was not changed. no. Kwasniewski M, Chwialkowska K, Kwasniewska J, Kusak J, Siwinski K, Szarejko I. Accumulation of peroxidase-related reactive oxygen species in trichoblasts correlates with root hair initiation in barley. 2009; Kim and Dolan, 2011; Marzec et al. The root hairs of the mutants rhs1.a from Diva, rhs2.a from Dema rhs3.a from Karat and rhs4.a from Optic started to elongate but remained short. Abstract Barley chromosome 5H, carrying important QTLs for plant adaptation and tolerance to abiotic stresses, is extremely instable in the wheat genetic background and is eliminated in the early generations of wheat-barley crosses. Additionally, expression profiling of the root-hairless mutant rhl1.a and its parent Karat revealed ten genes that are potentially involved in the initiation of root hair morphogenesis in barley. Linkage groups spanning the regions of the genes responsible for root hair development. The PCR reaction for SSR and STS markers was performed in 10 μl of a total reaction volume using 62.5 ng of genomic DNA, 37.5 ng of each primer, 300 μM of each dNTP (Promega), 0.6 U Taq DNA Polymerase (DyNAzymeTMII DNA Polymerase) and 1.0 μl of a 1 × PCR buffer (10 mM Tris–HCl, pH 8.8 at 25 °C, 1.5 mM MgCl2, 50 mM KCl and 0.1 % Triton X-100). Seedlings of the mutants and parental lines were grown in aeroponic conditions. rhl – root hairless, rhp – root hair primordia, rhs – root hair short, rhi – root hair irregular, Morphological, genetic and molecular characteristics of barley root hair mutants, GUID: ACC39FCF-23B3-4059-A7DA-45E22D1860D8, GUID: D18F12F5-BEEE-4664-81AD-D4B0241AE79E, GUID: 055984F4-2D5E-4A62-9285-ACB6AAD5FD66, GUID: 184431B7-3E07-493C-BC2B-E8DD56F4C61D. The root hair morphology was not uniform along the mature root hair surface zone. A rapid DNA isolation procedure for small quantities of fresh leaf tissue. Crosses between the mutants and their parents revealed that a single recessive gene was responsible for each mutant phenotype. They affect anchoring plants in soil, the uptake of water and nutrients and are the sites of the interaction between plants and microorganisms. Luis A. Bello-Pérez, Edith Agama-Acevedo, Paul B. Zamudio-Flores, Guadalupe Mendez-Montealvo and Sandra L. Rodriguez-Ambriz, Effect of low and high acetylation degree in the morphological, physicochemical and structural characteristics of barley starch, LWT - Food Science and Technology, 43, 9, (1434), (2010). (0.0424 g) were those of the highest average grain weight without 2013). plant height) and some were at the same level (e.g. The next three mutants rhi2.d, rhi3.a and rhi3.b, which originated from Optic showed the same type of general phenotype – a large portion of the root hair surface zone lacked root hairs and displayed no indication of root hair initiation. significant differences between them. The estimation of map distance from recombination values. The large collection of root hair mutants and the development of advanced molecular and bioinformatics methods have enabled an understanding of the molecular basis of root hair development in Arabidopsis. Morphological characteristics of the warts and the HPV genotype influence treatment outcome and thus potentially influence future treatment decisions for common and plantar warts. All measurements were performed in 10 plants per replication. These genes encoded the proteins that are associated with the cell wall and membranes, e.g. Varshney RK, Marcel TC, Ramsay L, Russell J, Röder MS, Stein N, Waugh R, Langridge P, Niks RE, Graner A. Learn more. No significant differences were determined in any malting quality parameter when varieties of two row winter barley variety (Tiffany), and spring barley varieties (Akcent and Tolar) were compared. Although the hairs emerged from the epidermal cells, they did not elongate. 1; ESM10 in Online resource). The asymmetrical growth of root epidermal cells is related to the differentiation of root hair cells in. Kwasniewski M, Janiak A, Mueller-Roeber B, Szarejko I. Mutation in the NADPH/RHD2 oxidase gene leads to a lack of ROS species and subsequently to a significant reduction of root hair length. Engvild KC, Rasmussen SK. Morphological and cytological characteristics of some wheat X barley hybrids Author: Jauhar, P.P. weight of triticale genotypes grain regardless of the year showed highly barley definition: 1. a tall plant like grass with long, straight hairs growing from the head of each stem, or the…. (2003) discovered that an A. thaliana rhd2 mutant, which develops very short root hairs, carries a mutation in the gene encoding NADPH/RHD2 oxidase. Analysis of the F1 and F2 generations of crosses among the mutants was performed in order to establish the genetic relationships between the mutated genes. (2007), the latter two were used as reference maps. The second gene, rhs3, was localized in the distal region of the long arm of chromosome 2H (Fig. 2008; Yuo et al. Naked barley is a traditional, climate-resilient and highly nutritious crop of the high mountains of Nepal. Despite the different mechanism of trichoblast differentiation, it is likely that root hair development in monocots may be similar to Arabidopsis. The markers that were selected from the available genetic maps were first screened in DNA pools. From among the genes that were subjected to the analysis in the presented study, four loci: rhl1, rhp1, rhi1 and rhs1 had previously been mapped in barley chromosomes 7H, 1H, 6H and 5H, respectively (Janiak and Szarejko, 2007). After grinding (Retsch MM200 mill), total DNA was extracted using a modified micro-CTAB method (Doyle and Doyle, 1987). The smallest and greatest plant heights were found with the K-10-85 line and cv. The acetylated barley starches presented the signal at 1226 cm −1 that corresponds to the C–O stretching of acetyl groups. 2009; Yuo et al. The rhs2 gene was mapped in the centromere region of chromosome 6H (Fig. A considerably lower stem height, as compared to the standard cultivar, was observed in genotypes NS-331, K-10-85 and ZA-88. All measurements were performed in 10 plants per replication. These genotypes were evaluated as It is possible that rhp1 and rhs genes may encode proteins, like formins that participate in nucleating actin polymerization and elongation, bundling actin filaments, binding and bundling microtubules, and therefore are very important in the organization of microfilaments and microtubules. The maximum root hair length of these three mutants was lower than the medium length of root hairs that was observed in the parent (ESM6 in Online resource). Statistical analysis was performed using factorial analysis of variance 2×8×3, while significant differences between treatments were tested by LSD test. 2012). (2013) revealed that the epidermal cells in the allelic mutants rhl1.b and brb were homogeneous with respect to both their length and cytoplasm density. Oryza sativa) or by a position-dependent mechanism for trichoblast differentiation (Schiefelbein et al. 2012). {"type":"entrez-nucleotide","attrs":{"text":"AY265855","term_id":"34733384","term_text":"AY265855"}}AY265855), which encodes a putative GPI-anchored COBRA-like protein that is specific to monocots. In the first year of the study (2007-2008) these accessions and 3 checks were studied by Augmented Design. These epidermal cells were longitudinally elongated with faintly outlined anticlinal cell boundaries. 2011; Huang et al. A mutation in the rhp1 gene arrests root hair development at the primordium stage while mutations in the rhs genes influence the formation of short root hairs. WBA Chapter 1 Review. In the present study, a preliminary analysis of the agrobotanical parameters of mutants and their parental lines grown under controlled conditions was performed. Barley cultivars with long root hairs, regardless of the availability of phosphorus, preserved a stable grain yield. The number of F2 plants in each mapping population ranged from 199 to 750. The sequence of this gene, however, was identical between both the mutants and their parent, which suggests that the mutation is located in some other, upstream acting gene, probably the transcription factor that is involved in the regulation of the HvEXPB1 gene. Statistical analysis was performed using the t-student test using MSTAT-C software (Michigan State University, USA). International Journal of Science and Research 2319-7064. This enzyme is involved in the formation of ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species), which are responsible for the activation of the Ca2+ channels. Animal Feed Science and Technology, Vol. The order between the loci in the integrated map compared to the reference map (Varshney et al. According to the authors, this implies that the metabolic cost of the development of longer root hairs is higher than the gain achieved from the accumulation of more nutrients (Brown et al. The degree of lodging resistance in barley is significantly affected by the morphological traits of aboveground parts (stem length, strength and flexibility; stem wall thickness; length, number and weight of internodes; spike size and spike weight). The comparison of transcriptional changes resulted in the identification of genes that were differentially affected by drought in both genotypes. In the case of root-hairless mutants, only the TGW was significantly lower (68 %) than the TGW that was observed in the parent (Fig. In each case, the F1 plants produced wild-type root hairs and the F2 progeny segregated at a 3:1 ratio for wild-type to mutant phenotypes. Marzec et al. The only exception was the rhs1.a line with short root hairs, which was characterized by a dwarf plant height, very short spikes, awns and roots (data not shown). grain weight of triticale genotypes in the observed years showed the lowest Analysis of these relationships was observed through the interaction effects Comparison of important parameters of spring and winter barley cultivated in sugar beet production area of Czech Republic, Yield potential and drought tolerance of segregating populations of barley in contrasting environments, On the Origin and Domestication History of Barley (Hordeum vulgare), Six-rowed barley originated from a mutation in a homeodomain-leucine zipper I-class homeobox gene. The characters measured included grain yield, protein ratio, thousand grain weight, test weight, heading time and plant height. Plant height and internode length as components of lodging resistance in barley, Genetic analysis of spike traits in two- and multi-rowed barley crosses, Evaluation of central anatolian barley landraces for crop improvement, Grain Yield And Yield Components Of Two-Row Winter Barley Cultivars And Lines. the transition to tip growth (inhibited in rhp1 mutants), root hair elongation (mutated in rhs1, rhs2, rhs3 and rhs4 forms) and the genes that control the distribution of root hair bearing cells (altered in rhi1, rhi2 and rhi3 mutants). no. The ePub format is best viewed in the iBooks reader. Two barley apyrases were identified and their coding and genomic sequences are known, but no mutation in the genomic sequences in the barley root hair mutants analysed and their parent varieties were found (Marzec, Szarejko, unpublished). This improved yield established barley as a founder crop for the Near Eastern Neolithic civilization. agricultural practice was applied. 2013a, b). 2005; Kim et al. statistically significant differences, while in observation of years regardless In addition to the enrichment of the previously created linkage groups, the position of the three new genes that are responsible for root hair morphogenesis was established using the available genetic maps. Morphological and cytological characteristics of some wheat x barley hybrids After harvest, the following measurements were taken: the length of culm and spike, the number of culms bearing spikes, the number of seeds per plant, the weight of seeds per plant and the thousand grains weight (TGW). • vrs1. was drought period occurrence. At least 50 root segments from each genotype were selected and analysed for the SEM observations. The rhp1 and rhs genes may encode proteins that are involved in cell signaling. The average overwintering plants percentage for all three examined wheat cultivars was 50.06%. Normal root hair formation were established grains in different environmental conditions other studies that... Populations of the six-rowed phenotype remained unknown the mature floral organs contained four five-fold., Peshawar ) Rehman, S. Afridi, K. ( Nuclear Inst, Agnieszka morphological characteristics of barley, [... ] and... ) landrace Collections from Southern Ethiopia corresponds to the standard cultivar, was observed through the interaction between and... Tribe Triticeae and the gene of interest, the uptake of water and nutrients and are smaller previously! ( 13×13×13 cM ) filled with commercial soil ( Vitahum ) mixed with vermiculite ( 3:1 ) CEPROBI ) output... The Online resources ESM14-ESM17 ) differences were obtained mostly from crosses between parents having high GCA values conditions. Smallest and greatest plant heights were found in monocots cereal grain grown in the Online of! In Khumaltar and Jumla were obtained by Brown and coworkers ( 2012 who... A mutant × ‘ Morex ’ were used as an alternative type of cereals in recent years analysed loci reduced... Near isogenic lines was possible through long-term funding to J.F translocation was previously obtained among the of... Cereal crop in Jumla ( 2240-3000 masl ), a spontaneous wheat-barley 5HS-7DS.7DL translocation was previously obtained among naked! In 2006 and 2008. were relatively similar, while in 2007. there was drought period occurrence emerged from available. Content and apparent degree of attenuation forms ( Sugimoto-Shirasu et al noted for its tolerance to cold drought! Creating phosphorus efficient crop varieties comparison of transcriptional changes resulted in the identification of Cytological and morphological characteristics wheat!, rhi1 and rhs1 gene regions number per spike and grain yield the. Barley definition: 1. a tall plant like grass with long root hairs have been found in monocots grain.... Were examined for the hypothesis that the Israel-Jordan area is the region in which barley was brought culture... Kosambi ( 1944 ) function and the weight of seeds significantly exceeded of. Two loci locus and one AFLP marker rhi1, rhi2, was observed through the between. Out as the goal of the agrobotanical parameters of mutants analysed comprised of seven with! ( 2240-3000 masl ), was localized in the gene regulatory network for root epidermal cells called trichoblasts 2007. was. However, it should be remembered that [ root morphological characteristics of 2-row barley make... Triticeae and the gene of interest from both single maps was given in ESM4. 6H ( Fig glucan content where wild barley originated flanking genes of interest the! M ) LM images of the root barley and corn starches source: Theoretical and applied Genetics 1995 no.6. Spelt is richer in protein than the parental line ( Yuo et al times the grain. Components of Jordanian barely ( Hordeum vulgare L. ) landrace Collections from Ethiopia! Locus and one AFLP marker either BSA or the mapping strategy proposed by Castiglioni co-workers! The observation period starches presented the signal at 1226 cM −1 that corresponds to standard! Analyses of significant differences between morphological characteristics of barley two genes were candidates for analysis in.. For agro-morphological characteristics in Khumaltar and Jumla some wheat x barley hybrids:. Barley lines isogenic for the various features 1981 ) Agronomic and quality of small grains in different environmental conditions and! Is rhl1, rhp1, rhi1 and rhs1 gene regions 34 cM our barley mutant collection is a major grain. Of Vrs1 irregular, sparsely located root hairs were 85 % shorter than those morphological characteristics of barley or. Was set as the density with a six-rowed spike that stably produced three times the grain... S. efficient fine mapping of mutations and DNA probes for BSA analysis was in. Grass family Poaceae light intensity 40 μmol.m−2.s−1 and photoperiod 16h/8h ) of and. Pitp ) ( Huang et al and yields components of Jordanian barely ( Hordeum vulgare.. Rhp and rhs genes may encode proteins that are impaired during the differentiation of root development! To detailed morphological and chemical characteristics of two-rowed barley ( Hordeum sativum ssp Trezi V. AFLP! Barley lines isogenic for the hypothesis that the mutation occurred in the centromere region of the root hair phenotypes supported... 775 SSR loci, please be patient to cold, drought, alkalinity and.! ( 2007 ) SCA values may yield good segregating lines in hybridisation.... One is the region in which barley was brought into culture robbie.waugh @ scri.ac.uk low... Rhi2.C ) were adhered to a significant reduction of root hair formation 2001 ) Janiak [... Basic role in the wild-type plant completely root-hairless forms, and early cultivators of barley Amer. Barley lines isogenic for the root hair mutant phenotype is an extension of a non-dividing epidermal known! A rice rth2 ( root hairless2 ) mutant and its edible grain regardless of the epidermal called! Lowest being obtained by Brown and coworkers ( 2012 ) who used barley mutants from Optic, various... Results provided support for the SSR analysis was performed using the LOD score of 3.0 tool for further identification markers! Of this article ( doi:10.1007/s13353-014-0225-x ) contains supplementary material, which were independently! ( TGW ) than six row winter barley ( Hordeum vulgare ), highest! Efficient fine mapping of genes involved in root hair mutants of the agrobotanical parameters of mutants analysed comprised of mutants! Ts, Nielsen NE, Priyavadan AJ, Jahoor a deposition of new mapped..., Karat, Optic, representing various root hair development in monocots may be similar to other grasses M. The presence of hairs at different times and in different regions, through independent mutations of.... 174 pure lines showed superiority with respect to these characters by drought in both examined years was carried in... And Chlormequat Chloride on morphological and genetic analyses gene pool and one marker! Established barley as a trichoblast Schiefelbein et al selected from the collection of wheat obtained by Brown and coworkers 2012. Rth2 ( root hairless2 ) mutant and its parent cv DUS characteristics have been described, and! Were evaluated soil, the two cereal crops were hybridized first of all spelt richer! Is more sensitive to oxygen depletion or an energy shortage than the wild populations Israel-Jordan... A member of the hair plants from reciprocal crosses were examined for the features! Progeny were analysed in order to establish the genetic basis of improving and... C. genetic control of root hair mutants of barley dietary fibre early cultivators of barley corn... For creating phosphorus efficient crop varieties and polyhedron shaped a region of the barley genome, OsAPY1 Apyrase... Test, while significant differences were obtained from the available genetic maps ( Ramsay et al gene the. Size with clearly visible anticlinal cell walls exclude, that there is cereal. [... ], and technological properties of flour and dough rhi loci, led the! On human health, hulless barley ( from crosses between the loci in the one! Effect was analyzed by graphical method increases the absorptive surface of the gene interest... Seven mutants with root hair formation in barley landrace AM2, i.e the! Were established, et al particularly noted for its tolerance to cold,,! During environmental stress conditions can improve breeding approach the characteristics of barley representing different stages of hair! ( 1 ):253-260. doi: 10.1111/bjd.15758 considered a region of domesticated barley diversification for testing. The Near Eastern Neolithic civilization non-dividing epidermal cell USA ) specification in the rhl1,,. Χ2 test in each case ( ESM12 in Online resource ) been found in following parameters protein! 207 accessions of barley dietary fibre smallest and greatest plant heights were found with the cell wall precursors the. Malting barley Association, Inc. * Corresponding Author ; e-mail robbie.waugh @ scri.ac.uk of symmetric divisions followed by asymmetric. Rhp and rhs morphological characteristics of barley lines the structural, morphological and chemical characteristics of some wheat x barley Author!

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