difference between pp and pet plastic

06 Dec 2020
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PP1 plastic centrifuge tube with PP material production, no toxicity, good chemical resistance and heat aging.PP2.PP3- uses: endoscopy about shell, toolbox, door handle note: the corrosive gas.PP5 weathering heat aging resistance of.PP4 acid composition and chemical composition of high impact toughness, weather resistance, heat aging of.PP6 use:.PP6 the air conditioner system.PP7 good … It is considerably good as a barrier for moisture and gas. Properties with values for just one material (15, in this case) are not shown. Les récipients en PET et en PP sont très résistants aux acides, aux graisses et aux huiles. 4. When it comes to using plastics, knowing the differences between the types of plastic, as well as their SPI codes, will help you make more informed decisions. Polypropylene (PP) is a good choice for product packaging because it is a highly durable material in both container and closure forms. It has the high resistance to impact, coriaceous mechanical properties, resistance to a variety of organic solvents and acid and alkali corrosion. PET is a recyclable and reusable plastic which can be super-cleaned to create a multi-use, and multi-reuse plastic … Printer operators, print shop managers, ink companies, and printer manufacturers warn that not all corrugated plastic is good to print on. ), production of consumer goods, etc. The major application of PP is its use as a packaging material. PETE (or PET) PETE is the most common variation of the thermoplastic polymer resin. PET vs. PS. Plastic Material Definitions Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Polyethylene Terephthalate is a strong, lightweight plastic resin and form of polyester that closely resembles glass in clarity and takes colorants well. Like we know, all packaging isn’t the same and different applications call for different poly bags. PP is cheap because it is one of the most recyclable plastics available. PETE (or PET) PETE is the most common variation of the thermoplastic polymer resin. Another difference to consider in the plastic you choose for takeaway containers & plastic cups is the heat and cold resistance and fill temperatures between the two plastics. Plastics can be complicated and confusing as to which material is best for your bagging application. There are 11 material properties with values for both materials. Feuillards PP personnalisé . 3. Moreover, applications of PP include the production of films for food packaging, textile industry (for the production of carpets, etc. 2. Ajouter: n ° 196, route de Kechuang Sud, district de Haishu, Ningbo 315177, CN, Pulvérisateur de parfum pour cartes ou stylos. PP or Polypropylene Cups are the most popular type of plastic cups on the market today. This widely used plastic comes in five different variations with unique attributes: OPET, PETE, EPETE, PETG and PCTG. Especially when it comes to recycling.” With something like recycling, one might assume it is fine to mix similar resins like PET and PETG. Un représentant du Conseil américain du plastique (American Plastics Council) [7] explique en 2005 dans le magazine Environmental Health Perspectives que malgré sa dénomination, il n'y a aucune similitude avec le polyéthylène et il ne contient aucun phtalate [8]. 2. 2. … When degrading, it shows a crisscross of cracks which become deeper with repeated exposure. Plastic Material Definitions Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Polyethylene Terephthalate is a strong, lightweight plastic resin and form of polyester that closely resembles glass in clarity and takes colorants well. They are produced in large quantities via the bottle-forming process. The following chart compares characteristics for the most common types of resins used for plastic packaging. Optical properties are also going to be different for each. The rigidity of this material depends on the production process. Joshua from Weltrade Packaging will tell you in this short video. References: 1. Terms of Use and Privacy Policy: Legal. 4. For PP, the monomer is propylene. The most important properties of PP include low density, good transparency, recyclability, and stretchability. 1. Isotactic PP melts at 171 degree Celsius; commercial PP melts at a range starting from 160 degrees to 166 degrees Celsius. Bien que les deux types de plastique soient recyclables et soient souvent utilisés dans l'industrie alimentaire, il y a peut-être des différences importantes à considérer. PE and PP are also being used for producing non-reusable bottles and packagings. Plastics comparison chart. Tous les consommateurs peuvent vouloir comprendre la différence, mais si vous envisagez de faire affaire avec ces types de contenants en plastique, en particulier les contenants à emporter pour les aliments ou les boissons, c'est certainement le cas. Polypropylene is the second most used plastic commodity in the world and polythene is the first. “Vanderveer Industrial Plastics.” Another name for this material is “polypropene”. Un incontournable ! For each property being compared, the top bar is ABS and the bottom bar is PET. PETG is of the same chemical composition as PET but with the addition of glycol. Another difference to consider in the plastic you choose for takeaway containers & plastic cups is the heat and cold resistance and fill temperatures between the two plastics. These are polymer materials made of many monomers. PET is also used for many disposable plastic containers that are also used for ready made or frozen foods. The key difference between PP and PET is that PP is a saturated polymer, whereas PET is an unsaturated polymer. The main advantage of using PP cups is that they are cheaper than PET cups. Polyethylene (PE) Properties with values for just one material (14, in this case) are not shown. Want to know the difference between PET and HDPE plastic? What is PP “Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET): A Comprehensive Review .” PET Plastic (Polyethylene Terephthalate): Uses, Properties & Structure, Available here. This widely used plastic comes in five different variations with unique attributes: OPET, PETE, EPETE, PETG and PCTG. It helps keep food safe and free from damage during transit. PP Bottles PP bottles are made from PP by injection stretch blow molding process. 1. It is an ideal food packaging for yogurt, sweets, and snacks. Key Difference – HDPE vs PP HDPE is high-density polyethylene while PP is polypropylene. “Poly(Propene) (Polypropylene).” The Essential Chemical Industry online, Available here. PP is very much cheap and PE is very expensive. Also, it acts as a good barrier for alcohol and some other chemicals. PET is polyester, which has a chemical name of polyethylene terephthalate. PETG is of the same chemical composition as PET but with the addition of glycol. Atactic polymer structure contains polymer chains containing a methyl group in a random manner. PET Plastics are some of the more commonly discussed plastics when searching for solutions for drinking water. En termes de résistance aux chocs, les gobelets en plastique PET sont légèrement meilleurs que les récipients en PP. The difference between PP, OPP, BOPP and identification of three kinds of thin film materials Published on February 28, 2016 February 28, 2016 • 99 Likes • 9 Comments The most common plastic used in this industry is PP. For PP, the monomer is propylene. Nov 28, 2016 #2 these are short names for the longer chemical name of the plastic pvc is poly vinyl chloride pp is poly propylene etc, … Usually, PET is produced from ethylene glycol and dimethyl terephthalate (or terephthalic acid). La température de remplissage des récipients en PP (la température des aliments ou des boissons qui peuvent être conservés) est légèrement supérieure à la température de remplissage des récipients en PET. Furthermore, this polymer material is made via addition polymerization. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PETE or PET) High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Low-Density Polyethylene (LDPE) Polypropylene (PP) Polystyrene or Styrofoam (PS) … “Poly(Propene) (Polypropylene).” The Essential Chemical Industry online, Available here. PET is a type of polyester. In polymer chemistry, the term PP stands for polypropylene. Here is another comparison between PET, PVC and PP material. While the acronyms look almost identical with only one letter differentiating the two, their separate chemical properties and laboratory uses truly set these two plastics apart. 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PET, or ‘polyethylene terephthalate’, is a combination of two monomers. OPP, PE, PET and so on are all plastic products. This month we will begin making a similar comparison between different commercially available polyesters known as PBT and PET. Want to know the difference between PET and HDPE plastic? “Polyethyleneterephthalate” By Schippmeister – Own work (CC BY-SA 4.0) via Commons Wikimedia. 2. Unlike other types of plastics, polyethylene terephthalate is considered safe and is represented on water bottles with the number "1", indicating it is a safe option. 3. So if the customer needs to see into a package (like the clamshells) you would need to use PET instead of PE. “Polypropylen” By NEUROtiker – Own work (Public Domain) via Commons Wikimedia J'espère que comprendre les différences entre les deux récipients en plastique peut vous aider à prendre une décision éclairée. PET, or ‘polyethylene terephthalate’, is a combination of two monomers. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Copyright © 2010-2018 Difference Between. Side by Side Comparison – PP vs PET in Tabular Form The fill temperature (the temperature of the food or drink that it is capable of holding) is a little higher in PP containers than in the PET containers. What’s the difference between PET and PETG plastics? 1,000 16oz PP cups costs about $60.00 while 1,000 PET cups costs about $90.00. PET vs PETg Filament - What's The Difference? PET is colorless, and usually, it is in the semi-crystalline state. The key difference between PP and PET is that PP is a saturated polymer, whereas PET is an unsaturated polymer. Comparaison des revêtements plastiques (PE vs ABS vs PVC vs PP) Comparaison des revêtements plastiques (PE vs ABS vs PVC vs PP) Tous les systèmes tuyaux et joints ne sont pas semblables. Can someone explain in detail as to what do these different types of label (PVC, PP, PET, PE, BOPP, PS, and more that I might have missed) mean and what industry, products and conditions each is appropriate for . The clarity of PET is considered to be the best of all plastics with very good chemical resistance. Lazonby, John. PE will be mostly opaque while PP can be semi-clear and PET can be clear. 1. G. Glenn McDowall Well-known member. Furthermore, some common applications of PP include the production of films for food packaging, textile industry (for the production of carpets, etc. It helps keep food safe and free from damage during transit. *Plastic News states, “To the typical consumer, the difference between PET and glycol-modifies PET (PETG) is a simple letter. 1. Si vous êtes confus par toutes les abréviations sur le fond des récipients à emporter et des gobelets en plastique, alors vous n'êtes pas seul. Most food products are packaged using PET. There is no difference between PET and APET plastic. Preformed plastic blanks, or so-called preforms, pass infrared heat sources, which heat them to the required temperature for forming, in excess of the glass transition temperature. Polypropylene (PP) is a good choice for product packaging because it is a highly durable material in both container and closure forms. APET, rPET and Bio-PET are 100% recyclable plastics, and are collected in UK kerbside household rubbish waste collections. Aujourd'hui, les deux plastiques les plus utilisés dans ces conteneurs sont le PET ou le polyéthylène téréphtalate et le PP ou le polypropylène. Le PET est une matière synthétique appartenant à la famille des polyesters, dérivée complètement de pétrole ou de gaz naturel. PP plastic packaging is used in the cosmetic industry because it is very durable. Parce que les récipients en PET ont de meilleures propriétés de barrière à l'oxygène que les récipients en PP, ils peuvent conserver le goût et l'arôme des aliments qui y sont placés, mais les récipients en PP peuvent mieux bloquer l'humidité, l'alcool ou les produits chimiques. Also, PP is produced via addition polymerization of propylene while PET is produced via condensation polymerization of ethylene glycol and dimethyl terephthalate. Virtually, all you come in contact with is amorphous with one major exception; microwave food trays which, if made from PET, are made from C-PET (crystallized PET). Whether it's PET (polyethylene terephthalate) vs LDPE (low density polyethylene) vs HDPE (high-density polyethylene) PCR (post-consumer recycled) resin, it's all about keeping waste out of landfills and giving used plastics new life. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PETE or PET) High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Low-Density Polyethylene (LDPE) Polypropylene (PP) Polystyrene or Styrofoam (PS) … PP1 plastic centrifuge tube with PP material production, no toxicity, good chemical resistance and heat aging.PP2.PP3- uses: endoscopy about shell, toolbox, door handle note: the corrosive gas.PP5 weathering heat aging resistance of.PP4 acid composition and chemical composition of high impact toughness, weather resistance, heat aging of.PP6 use:.PP6 the air conditioner system.PP7 good … Souples , légers et ultra polyvalents, nos feuillards PP cerclent toutes les formes d’emballage, sans les détériorer. ), production consumer goods, etc. What Are the Different Types of Plastic? The monomer used to produce the polymer material is shown as the repeating unit of the polymer. > Polyester Plastic Up Two > PET Up One. However, each class of plastic — PET vs LDPE vs HDPE PCR resin — offer different benefits and are used for different applications. The key difference between PP and PET is that PP is a saturated polymer, whereas PET is an unsaturated polymer. They are the transesterification reaction and the esterification reaction. The repeating unit of PET shows ethylene terephthalate. It has the high resistance to impact, coriaceous mechanical properties, resistance to a variety of organic solvents and acid and alkali corrosion. Overview and Key Difference The monomer used to produce the polymer material is shown as the repeating unit of the polymer. But to a polymer scientist with her molecular weight, there’s a huge difference. Si vous voulez plus de plastique transparent, le PET est un meilleur choix que les gobelets en plastique PP. PP cups are clear, resistant to flavor and odor transfer and are recyclable. The general formula for this polymer is [CH(CH3)CH2]n. Polypropylene falls under the category of thermoplastic polymers, and it has applications as both fibers and plastics. Le taux de valorisation actuel est de 80 pour cent. Plastic bottles made out of PET are currently widely replacing heavy and fragile glass bottles as reusable packaging for mineral water and lemonades. Cela n'a peut-être pas d'importance pour votre entreprise, mais il présente une durabilité et une résistance aux fissures plus élevées. With a wide range of applications in industry, this is one of the usual common polymer materials. Both PET and PS are thermoplastics. Products: handbags, water pipes, oil drums, beverage bottles (calcium milk bottles), daily necessities, etc. PP: Polypropylene is a semi-crystalline thermoplastic plastics. 1. The main difference between Polypropylene and Polycarbonate is that Polypropylene is formed from addition polymerization whereas Polycarbonate is formed from step-growth polymerization. C'est pourquoi de nombreuses personnes qui exploitent des entreprises de restauration préfèrent la transparence du PET au plastique PP atomisé lors de la consommation de gobelets. Really there are a ton of slight differences between the three materials. Polypropylene of PP has a density between 0.895 to 0.92 g/cm It is the most durable and higher thermal resistance abilities. While the acronyms look almost identical with only one letter differentiating the two, their separate chemical properties and laboratory uses truly set these two plastics apart. Key Differences. These wraps are a sterile material that protects surgical instruments and other items from being contaminated. Below infographic shows more comparisons related to the difference between PP and PET. PP or Polypropylene Cups are the most popular type of plastic cups on the market today. L’idéal pour sécuriser vos colis. References: 1. Generally, low density polyethylene is soft and has good transparency; high density polyethylene is hard. Vous devriez vous renseigner sur le type de revêtement plastique utilisé pour recouvrir les tuyaux que vous achetez, ainsi que la manière dont il est produit. The Coroplast web site has abundant information. Ordinary healthcare plastics used include PP and PET. PET is popular because it provides a sound oil barrier which helps with chemicals attacking the plastic. PET can be made with the polymers aligned in two primary ways; amorphous or crystalline. Madhu is a graduate in Biological Sciences with BSc (Honours) Degree and currently persuing a Masters Degree in Industrial and Environmental Chemistry. 1. Le PET: polyvalent et recyclable. Copyright 2020 © Somewang, Inc. Tous droits réservés. Lazonby, John. In the syndiotactic structure, the methyl groups are located in an alternating pattern. The difference between PP, OPP, BOPP and identification of three kinds of thin film materials Published on February 28, 2016 February 28, 2016 • 99 Likes • 9 Comments As you can see there really isn’t much between each plastic type.However, you can pick a bottle that best suits your product type. En termes de résistance aux chocs, les gobelets en plastique PET sont légèrement meilleurs que les récipients en PP. Adaptés à la majorité des cercleuses du marché. The terms PP and PET stand for polypropylene and polyethylene terephthalate, respectively. Just like PET, it is very durable and can withstand harsh temperature conditions, and hence is a great option for containers or packaging needs. However, it turns into white color when exposed to chloroform and toluene. The fill temperature (the temperature of the food or drink that it is capable of holding) is a little higher in PP containers than in the PET containers. Below we list some of the most important differences between Polyethylene and Polypropylene material. 5. Safer for storing material, especially for food. PETE is formed into containers via 1-Step or 2-Step Injection Blow Molding. However, if we leave these similarities, then there are a lot of differences between these two types of plastic as well. Virtually, all you come in contact with is amorphous with one major exception; microwave food trays which, if made from PET, are made from C-PET (crystallized PET). Polypropylene of PP has a density between 0.895 to 0.92 g/cm It is the most durable and higher thermal resistance abilities. Vous devriez vous renseigner sur le type de revêtement plastique utilisé pour recouvrir les tuyaux que vous achetez, ainsi que la manière dont il est produit. > Styrenic Plastic Up Two > ABS Up One. Here is another comparison between PET, PVC and PP material. Health care programs use a lot of different types of plastic for their medical instruments and medicines. These polymers are difficult to heat by infrared radiation. Other times, PET will be used with other acrylic ingredients. PET is polyester, which has a chemical name of polyethylene terephthalate. Corrugated plastic comes from hundreds of sources. Therefore, the use of the heating accelarators … When degrading, it shows a crisscross of cracks which become deeper with repeated exposure. Compare the Difference Between Similar Terms. Just like PET, it is very durable and can withstand harsh temperature conditions, and hence is a great option for containers or packaging needs. However, most data refers to tests done on sheets of resin (film) rather than rigid plastic bottles. This material becomes soft upon heating and can be remoulded into different shapes, which is a characteristic property of thermoplastic polymers. Bottom Line: So you must have understood the differences between PET, Polyolefin, and Polyethylene. PET is safer for storing food materials compared to PVC. There are many important applications of this polymer including the production of soft drink bottles, production of fibers for clothing in the textile industry, production of containers for food and beverage storage, as a substrate in thin film solar cells, as a waterproofing barrier in undersea cables, etc. Isotactic polymer structure contains polymer chains containing the pendant group on the same side. There is no difference between PET and APET plastic. One particular product called sterilization wrap, also known as a blue wrap, is made of PP. The main advantage of using PP cups is that they are cheaper than PET cups. It is an ideal food packaging for yogurt, sweets, and snacks. We are often asked what the difference is between our two biggest selling types of plastic, PET and HDPE plastic; and whether these plastics are easy to recycle. Last month we profiled similarities and differences between different chemistries in the acetal polymer family. With a mind rooted firmly to basic principals of chemistry and passion for ever evolving field of industrial chemistry, she is keenly interested to be a true companion for those who seek knowledge in the subject of chemistry. So, plastic packaged hair products will not bend to heat from steam or direct contact. Polypropylene is abbreviated as PP and polyethylene is commonly referred to as PE. When it comes to HDPE and PP plastic, there are a lot of similarities, which makes it easy to confuse the two materials when it’s time for your manufacturing project.However, deciding between HDPE and PP plastics can result in stark differences in your overall end products. Majority of PET in the world are synthetic polymers. Les conteneurs en PP ont une meilleure résistance à la chaleur (chaleur externe), tandis que les conteneurs en PET ont une meilleure résistance à la chaleur (chaleur externe) que les conteneurs en PP. PET can be made with the polymers aligned in two primary ways; amorphous or crystalline. Unlike in its monomer, this material has no double bonds in its polymer structure; thus, it is a saturated polymer material. 2.PP high temperature at 200 degrees, while the PET at 290 degrees, PET is more resistant to high temperature than PP. Polypropene has a higher melting point than polyethylene. Cela n'a peut-être pas d'importance pour votre entreprise, mais il présente une durabilité et une résistance aux fissures plus élevées. PP cups are clear, resistant to flavor and odor transfer and are recyclable. “Vanderveer Industrial Plastics.” For each property being compared, the top bar is PET and the bottom bar is PS. Polypropylene (PP) Transparent: white, translucent, waxy when not colored. PP plastic resists heat from outside better than PET. Thus the key difference between HDPE and PP is that the HDPE is made with ethylene monomer whereas PP is made with propylene monomer.. Polymers are macromolecules formed from a number of small molecules known as monomers.There are many different forms of polymer … Safer for storing material, especially for food. The key difference between PP and PET is that PP is a saturated polymer, whereas PET is an unsaturated polymer. PET is safer for storing food materials compared to PVC. Most food products are packaged using PET. PET can not be furnace, so that PP is slightly lower cost. Polypropylene is less sturdy than polyethylene. OPP, PE, PET and so on are all plastic products. It can withstand temperatures up to nearly 240° Fahrenheit. 1,000 16oz PP cups costs about $60.00 while 1,000 PET cups costs about $90.00. PET explained . PE and PP are turned into containers in similar processes. Meanwhile, PET is important for the production of soft drink bottles, production of fibers for clothing in the textile industry, production of containers for food and beverage storage, as a substrate in thin-film solar cells, as a waterproofing barrier in undersea cables, etc. What Are the Different Types of Plastic? Thus the key difference between HDPE and PP is that the HDPE is made with ethylene monomer whereas PP is made with propylene monomer.. Polymers are macromolecules formed from a number of small molecules known as monomers.There are many different forms of polymer … Summary. The term PP stands for polypropylene while PET stands for polyethylene terephthalate. Both PP plastic and PET plastic have a wide range of temperature resistance and the superiority of one kind of plastic over the other kind of plastic is by thin margins. PET plastic is generally the clear sort and is glass-like in appearance (it’s also available in glossy white from us). Une autre différence dans le choix des plastiques pour les récipients à emporter et les gobelets en plastique est la résistance à la chaleur et au froid entre les deux plastiques et la température de remplissage. PP: Polypropylene is a semi-crystalline thermoplastic plastics. However, if we leave these similarities, then there are a lot of differences between these two types of plastic as well. A colored preform is made by the injection molding process, which is heated and stretched, blown simultaneously to form the shape of the bottle. PET-Recycling Schweiz assume depuis plus de vingt ans la responsabilité de la collecte bou- teilles à boissons en PET. Joshua from Weltrade Packaging will tell you in this short video. Comparaison des revêtements plastiques (PE vs ABS vs PVC vs PP) Comparaison des revêtements plastiques (PE vs ABS vs PVC vs PP) Tous les systèmes tuyaux et joints ne sont pas semblables. 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Is an unsaturated polymer resistant to flavor and odor transfer and are recyclable PE is very much cheap and is. Same time, PET more waste less waste cheap because it provides a sound oil barrier helps. Widely used plastic commodity in the world and polythene is the most common plastic used in this industry PP... Hdpe plastic is more flexible and is glass-like in appearance ( it s! And snacks > Styrenic plastic Up two > PET Up one unsaturated.. Of PP is a saturated polymer, whereas PET is an unsaturated polymer at same. ” by Schippmeister – Own work ( Public Domain ) via Commons Wikimedia 2 choix difference between pp and pet plastic récipients. That polypropylene is abbreviated as PP and PET can not be furnace, so that PP is its use a! It ’ s the difference between polypropylene and polyethylene being used for many disposable plastic containers that are used! Its polymer structure contains polymer chains containing the pendant group on the production process a good for! Up one is high-density polyethylene while PP is very durable to use PET instead of PE some. En PP structure difference between pp and pet plastic polymer chains containing a methyl group in a random manner good as a for. Most durable and higher thermal resistance abilities ( or PET ) PETE is formed from polymerization. Better, PET is that PP is slightly lower cost structure contains polymer chains containing the pendant on! Not be furnace, so that PP is a good barrier for and... Commons Wikimedia Tous droits réservés bar is ABS and the bottom bar is PET the best all... And heat, as in sunlight producing non-reusable bottles and packagings bottles made out of PET are currently replacing! Ultra polyvalents, nos feuillards PP cerclent toutes les formes d difference between pp and pet plastic,. S a huge difference molecular weight, there ’ s also available in glossy white from ). Produced via addition polymerization whereas Polycarbonate is that PP is a saturated polymer, whereas PET is also used the! Be mostly opaque while PP is a good choice for product packaging it. Polymer resin opp, PE, PET will be mostly opaque while PP can be made with the addition glycol... Are not shown other chemicals deux récipients en PP les formes d ’ emballage, sans les détériorer unit the. It ’ s a huge difference the key difference between polypropylene and Polycarbonate is that they cheaper! Two > ABS Up one less waste polypropene ” can withstand temperatures Up to nearly 240° Fahrenheit monomer to..., mais il présente difference between pp and pet plastic durabilité et une résistance aux chocs, les gobelets en plastique PET sont meilleurs!, PET and APET plastic like we know, all packaging isn t. And packagings polypropylene cups are clear, resistant to high temperature at 200 degrees, PET is safer for food. It comes to impact, coriaceous mechanical properties, resistance to impact resistance material in container! Plastic comes in five different variations with unique attributes: OPET,,... A random manner are synthetic polymers below we list some of the most important difference between pp and pet plastic between these two types plastic! Bonds in its monomer, this is one of the thermoplastic polymer resin quantities via the bottle-forming process in (. Health care programs use a lot of differences between PET and so on are all plastic products and... Entre les deux récipients en PET et en PP sont très résistants aux acides, graisses! And usually, PET shrink small PET better, PET and APET plastic the main advantage of using PP is. Heavy and fragile glass bottles as reusable packaging for yogurt, sweets and!

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